Bibliography: Immigrant Rights (page 39 of 54)

This bibliography is reformatted and customized by the Center for Positive Practices for the Sanctuary Cities website. Some of the authors featured on this page include Young Pai, Bernard Arcand, Jay P. Heubert, Anne Elliott, Earl J. Ogletree, Patricia Williams, Hank Becker, M. A. Pearn, Patricia Irvine, and Denver Education Commission of the States.

Paulston, Christina Bratt (1977). Bilingual Education in the United States, 1977. The goal of European immigrants to the United States was characterized by the "melting pot" image up until the late 1960's. Then a trend of revival of the identity of ethnic minorities changed the slogan to "from the melting pot to the salad bowl." Cultural pluralism and maintenance of native languages became the goals of the movement. The massive school failure of the non-English speaking children led the federal government to legislate bilingual education programs in 1968. When a similar law was passed in Sweden for the Finnish-speaking children, the law was easily implemented. In the United States the autonomy of the states over the educational system has made implementation more difficult, and a Supreme Court decision was necessary to uphold the federal legislation (Lau vs.  Nichols). Guidelines, known as the Lau remedies, were then set up by the Office of Civil Rights (HEW). Without such bilingual programs it was found that children lost their native languages without learning English, which led to impairment of cognitive development and school failure. Most of the bilingual education programs in the United States are English-Spanish, and research shows that without exception these programs increase achievement in Spanish reading. Also, achievement in English reading is usually higher than control groups in monolingual programs. They also increase the self-concept scores of the Latino as well as of the Anglo and Black children.   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Bilingual Education, Bilingual Teachers, Bilingualism

Phi Alpha Delta Fraternity International, Granada Hills, CA. Public Service Center. (1997). Lesson Plan of the Month. Series V, No. 1-9, 1997. This series of independent lessons draws from examples of real legal issues and encourages students to refer to Constitutional interpretations and precedent cases to arrive at judgments. The lessons include: (1) "Affirmative Action: How Level is the Playing Field?"; (2) "We Are a Nation of Immigrants"; (3) "Should Elected Office Be a Lifetime Job?"; (4) "Is There Room for the Menorah, A Nativity Scene, and Other Religious Symbols in the Classroom?"; (5) "Indecency on the Net: Should It Be Regulated?"; (6) "Ethics, An Issue for Every American"; (7) "Cloning. . . Are We Next? How Far Should It Go?"; (8) "A Religion? Or a Cult? What's the Difference? And What Rights Do Religious Cults Have?"; and (9) "Teen Driver's License Regulations." Each lesson includes descriptions of cases and background information, objectives, key concepts and vocabulary, student activities, student handouts, supplemental activities, and can be adapted for use with elementary students.   [More]  Descriptors: Civics, Civil Law, Civil Liberties, Constitutional Law

Heubert, Jay P. (1994). "Brown" at 40: The Tasks That Remain for Educators and Lawyers. This paper describes some of the race discrimination issues in education that are most pressing 40 years after the "Brown v. Board of Education" decision and offers ways in which lawyers and educators can help address such discrimination. The following race discrimination issues in education are likely to produce conflict: (1) the use of ability groupings that tend to segregate students of color; (2) educational remedies in school desegregation cases ("Milliken II"); (3) educational services for limited-English-proficient students and the feasibility of bilingual education; (4) educational services for children of undocumented immigrants and the role of school officials in enforcing national immigration laws; and (5) harassment based on race and national origin. Lawyers and educators should approach discrimination not only as a legal problem but as a problem warranting immediate and aggressive educational interventions. Attorneys can encourage their education clients to take the following steps: (1) acknowledge the problem; (2) promote student and staff diversity; (3) teach students the history of the American civil rights movement; (4) eliminate ability groupings and set high expectations for all students; (5) ensure that curricula respects the contributions and concerns of persons of color; (6) modify pedagogies; (7) treasure native languages and ethnic identities; (8) create professional staffs to serve an increasingly diverse student population; (9) eliminate funding inequities; and (10) reduce concentrations of poor children in urban schools.  Descriptors: Ability Grouping, Bilingual Education, Court Litigation, Educational Discrimination

Pai, Young (1983). When Is a Difference Not a Difference?. The new pluralism in a democratic society requires that cultural differences be regarded as differences rather than deficits; however, this view of cultural pluralism does not mean that the notion of cultural differences should be carried to such an extreme as to become separatist in orientation. Cultural differences represent various societies' unique ways of coping in particular contexts, and it is not appropriate to judge the way others live by the standards of one's own culture. On the other hand, one should not conclude that particular beliefs and behavior patterns that work well in one cultural setting will necessarily be effective in another setting. Tenacious adherence to one's traditional cultural practices in a radically different context is maladaptive and self defeating. Thus, immigrants to America should be helped to understand that pride in their cultural heritage does not entail preserving all their cultural practices at all costs, and that living in a democracy does not justify, in the name of cultural pluralism, adherence to cultural norms that infringe on the rights of others. In a culturally diverse society, individuals can cope best by reconciling two or more cultural systems through modification of both. Descriptors: Acculturation, Adjustment (to Environment), Cultural Awareness, Cultural Differences

Reuter, Lutz R. (1989). Minorities in Germany after 1945. Discussion Papers. Members of minority groups in Germany were subjected to extreme forms of repression and in some cases extermination at the hands of the Nazis. Today, for many different reasons, members of minority groups are living in West Germany again. This paper presents the experience of minorities in West Germany since 1945 in light of the following factors: German history, living conditions, language skills, educational situation, political organizations, cultural activities and contributions, and the way minorities see themselves within the society. Minority-majority relations are especially considered as they constitute significant indicators for the political culture of West Germany or any other country. Four different minority groups are examined: Jews, Sinti and Roma (gypsies), Danish, and labor immigrants. The increasing ethic and cultural diversity of West Germany, and, indeed, all of Europe, is already a fact, but its consequences will depend on the attitudes of the citizens and the public policies pursued. Major policy areas include: the legal status and political rights of minorities, the equality of opportunities in terms of equal access to public goods, and the promotion of minority cultural activities. A 121-item bibliography is included.   [More]  Descriptors: Cross Cultural Studies, Cultural Pluralism, Cultural Traits, Ethnicity

Arcand, Bernard (1972). The Urgent Situation of the Cuiva Indians of Colombia. The Cuiva Indians of Colombia are now threatened with cultural and physical extermination at the hands of Colombian cattle herders. The Cuiva build no permanent houses and have no permanent settlements. They do not practice agriculture, obtaining their food from hunting and gathering. For more than 4 centuries after their discovery, little has been known about this indigenous population. Until recently the Cuiva have resisted Eurpoean influence within their territory. Although most settlers in Cuiva territory are recent immigrants, cattle herders first entered the area at the end of the 19th century, and began exterminating the Indians. Settlement has also continually taken away Cuiva hunting areas, greatly depleting food supplies. According to the laws regulating land ownership, it is sufficient for a settler to build a fence around the part of the savannah required for his cattle and to exploit this land for a few years, to acquire legal title to it. The Cuiva see as their most pressing problem at this time the protection of their right to their own land. The solution is to provide the Cuiva with the means to purchase their own land. Professional legal advice from Colombia could be arranged on how the purchase of this land can best be arranged (perhaps by setting up a board of trustees). Also, the Colombian government must be convinced of the urgent need to protect Cuiva territory from new settlers.   [More]  Descriptors: American Indians, Anthropology, Area Studies, Bias

Elliott, Anne, Ed.; Williams, Patricia, Ed. (1995). Isolating the Barriers and Strategies for Prevention: A Kit about Violence and Women's Education for Adult Educators and Adult Learners. This document, which is intended for adult educators, contains information learned during the course of pilot workshops on the connections between violence and women's education that were held in four areas of Canada (Pine Grove, Montreal, Toronto, and the Yukon). First, the pilot workshops and development/use of the document are discussed, and the activities and findings of each workshop are detailed. The barriers identified during the workshops are listed along with the various effects of violence that affect a woman's ability to learn, and selected groups of women who may face violence because of their life situation (disabled women, immigrant women, survivors of sexual abuse, and lesbians) are discussed. The personal experiences of nine women who have been victims of violence are related. The next section, which examines ways of creating a better learning environment, includes articles on the following topics: overcoming violence through writing; getting an education in prison; healing through adventure, reclaiming one's life after being victimized by violence; choosing a counselor, making learning safer and conducting a safety audit, and establishing relationships between students and teachers. Concluding the document are the following: workshop guidelines; woman's bill of rights; guide to survivor's language; and facts about abuse. Contains a list of 71 resources. Descriptors: Adult Education, Annotated Bibliographies, Battered Women, Change Strategies

Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO. (1995). 1994-95 State Issues Report. This report presents data on the status of state legislation in many areas of education. Data were collected from legislators, legislative staff, state newsletters, "StateNet," school board/teacher associations, and various media. Not all of the listed legislation was enacted. Legislation pertaining to the following topics was included: accountability/accreditation, administrator/principal, adult education, alternative education, articulation, assessment/testing, at-risk youth/dropout prevention, attendance, charter schools, choice, collective bargaining, community service/volunteerism, counseling/guidance, curriculum, discipline, early childhood education, education excellence/reform, enrollment, equity, extended day, finance, governance, grading practices, immigrants, incentives/sanctions, instruction methods, interagency collaboration, literacy, magnet schools, nonpublic schools, outcomes-based education, parent/family, postsecondary, privatization, professional development, religion, restructured schools, safety/crime/violence, scheduling, school facilities, school improvement, secondary education, sexual harassment, site-based management, social issues, special education, standards, student rights, superintendent, systemic change, teacher certification, teacher compensation, teacher contracts, teacher staff development/inservice, technology, tenure, textbooks, tuition, vocational education, vouchers, and workforce preparation/vocational education.   [More]  Descriptors: Discipline Policy, Dropout Prevention, Educational Assessment, Educational Finance

EDWARDS, G. FRANKLIN (1966). COMMUNITY AND CLASS REALITIES–THE ORDEAL OF CHANGE. IN CONTRAST WITH THE BASIC SOCIALIZATION PROCESS AND ACCULTURATION OF THE IMMIGRANT, THE NEGRO STILL IS MORALLY AND SOCIALLY ISOLATED FROM SOCIETY. ALTHOUGH CHANGES TOWARD MORE EQUALITY FOR THE NEGRO WILL OCCUR, THEY WILL BE DIFFICULT TO BRING ABOUT. THE GHETTO, WHICH ISOLATES THE NEGRO, PERSISTS BECAUSE OF THE VAST PROFITS THAT WHITE REALTORS DERIVE FROM IT, THE FAILURE OF URBAN RENEWAL PROGRAMS, THE NATURE OF THE HOUSING MARKET FOR MINORITY GROUPS, AND THE DESIRE OF NEGROES FOR GROUP COHESION. THE MAJOR INSTITUTIONAL IMPEDIMENTS TO "RECONCILIATION" ARE THE ATYPICAL STRUCTURAL AND INTERACTIONAL FEATURES OF THE NEGRO FAMILY–THE ONE-SPOUSE HOUSEHOLDS, LOW EDUCATIONAL LEVELS, UNDEREMPLOYMENT, AND POVERTY. THERE IS AMONG NEGROES, HOWEVER, CLASS AND STATUS DIFFERENTIATION, AND SOME ARE BEGINNING TO ACHIEVE MORE MIDDLE-CLASS OCCUPATIONS AND NOW HAVE GREATER OPPORTUNITIES FOR PROFESSIONAL TRAINING. THE FORCES INHIBITING CHANGE ARE OPPOSITION BY WHITES, THE ACCUMULATED DISADVANTAGE SUFFERED BY NEGROES, AND MANY NEGROES' VESTED INTERESTS IN AND AMBIVALENCE ABOUT DESEGREGATION. THE MOST SIGNIFICANT INFLUENCES IN DETERMINING THE PATTERN AND SPEED OF CHANGE ARE THE DECISIONS OF THE FEDERAL COURTS, EXECUTIVE ORDERS, AND LEGISLATION, ALL OF WHICH NOW ENFORCE CIVIL RIGHTS.   [More]  Descriptors: Blacks, Community, Court Litigation, Education

Irvine, Patricia, Ed.; And Others (1991). The Naturalization Process in New Mexico. A Guide for ESL Teachers and Advocates. This guide provides an overview of the naturalization process and what it means to Hispanic immigrants, describes techniques for integrating English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) and civics/history content in multilevel classes, offers directions for filling out the naturalization forms and completing the legal steps to naturalization, and provides strategies for getting through the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) oral interview and literacy test. The manual consists of six articles by different authors, and appended materials. The articles include: "U.S. Citizenship–Who Needs It?" (Patricia Irvine); "Using Grids to Integrate ESL and Content" (Jamie Treat); "'Yes, I Can Write English': Preparing ESL Students for the Literacy Exam" (Pat Bonilla); "Visual Aids: Islands in a Sea of Print" (Judy Kaul); "Naturalization: The Application (Form N-400)" (Jane Kochman); and "Naturalization: The Interview" (Dan Weber). Appended materials include: an outline of steps in the naturalization process; INS Forms N-400 (application to file petition for naturalization), G-325 (biographic information), and N-430 (request that applicant appear for interview); a chart of the rights of U.S. citizens; 100 INS civics questions, with answers, in English and Spanish; and 20 INS statements, in English, for literacy practice. (MSE)   [More]  Descriptors: Adult Education, Citizenship Education, Compliance (Legal), English (Second Language)

Becker, Hank (1978). Non-public Schools and Desegregation: Racial Factors and Changes in the Share of Big-City White Pupil Enrollment Going to Non-public Schools. The relationship of racial factors to recent trends in enrollment of white students in private schools is examined in this paper. Demographic and school enrollment data on 157 U.S. cities were gathered from the 1960 and the 1970 census. In addition, data from a 1968 survey of civil rights and school politics in non Southern cities were used in measuring the racial, educational and political climate in these cities. Because of initial differences, and because of distinct patterns of relationships between private school enrollment and various predictors, the South and the non South are analyzed separately. Race related variables considered in the multiple regression analysis include black and white public school enrollment and changes in the teacher and pupil racial segregation indices. Non race variables include city size, central city to suburb ratio, and the age of housing. A second set of regression analyses were made. These analyses employed the former variables together with economic data and measures of local immigrant or ethnic populations. It is concluded that racial factors in local demography during the 1960's did affect the level and direction of change occuring in the use of nonpublic schooling by white families. An elaboration of this model is suggested using sociopolitical variables.   [More]  Descriptors: Economic Factors, Elementary Secondary Education, Enrollment, Enrollment Trends

Pearn, M. A. (1978). Employment Testing and the Goal of Equal Opportunity: The American Experience. Testing in the United States has had a checkered history since tests were developed and used at the beginning of this century. In the earlier part of the century, test results were used to justify the exclusion of immigrants from parts of Europe. More recently, they have come under attack as restricting the access of blacks to jobs and education. Following the Civil Rights Act of 1964, there was an increase in litigation about testing, and as an alternative to employment tests, many employers instituted special programs and practices to insure minority hiring and advancement. The past few years have seen a greater flexibility on the part of the courts and an increase in the use of employment tests, with greater attention paid to the question of test validity. Testing is now on a firmer footing and should not be judged by the inadequacies of the past. With due regard to the reduction of bias in their use, validity used job related tests can contribute to the removal of arbitrary barriers to the employment of minority workers. Descriptors: Affirmative Action, Aptitude Tests, Blacks, Disadvantaged

Bergen, John J. (1987). Current Issues in Canadian Education. Based on interviews with 150 persons in departments of education and in national, provincial, and territorial education organizations in Canada's major capital cities, this paper discusses seven vital issues in Canadian education and briefly states seven others. The seven major issues needing resolution concern: (1) the appropriate balance between central and local control of education; (2) the amendment of provincial school legislation according to the principles outlined in the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms; (3) the appropriateness of official language policies for any or all of the provinces; (4) native people's control of their children's education; (5) the amount of provincial resources directed to developing and maintaining multicultural programs in schools; (6) the manner of provincial funding for education; and (7) the justification of private educational alternatives. Other issues include curriculum relevancy and enrichment, school responsibiltiy for controversial issues such as acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), mainstreaming handicapped children, the aging teaching force, teacher preparation, and professional autonomy. Generally, Canadian educational objectives have shifted from anglicization and assimilation of immigrants to support of a cultural "mosaic" and gradual, evolutionary acculturation. Individual freedom and choice has gained in contrast to conformity to the predominant group. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Centralization, Cultural Differences, Educational Finance

Howell, Gladys David (1979). The Silent Minority: Assimilated or Marginal?. In this paper, the concept of "invisible ethnic" is used to refer to an individual who is identified as different by dominant members of society and who is caught between an ancestral identity and culture on the one hand, and a wish to be assimilated, on the other. This concept is discussed in relation to Stonequist's "marginal man" and the social processes engendered by the phenomenon are examined. The position of immigrant and native ethnic groups in the United States and the pressures on them to conform to the dominant culture are contrasted with true opportunities for and costs of assimilation. Three modes of adaptation that Stonequist discusses as possible avenues out of the marginal self conception (the assimilationist role, the intermediary role, and the nationalist role) are considered. The concept of the marginal group is proposed for identifying the group manifestation of the psychological sense of inferiority and alienation described by Stonequist. This concept is then discussed in terms of its implications for ethnic group dynamics in a rapidly changing society such as the U.S. The rise of civil rights and ethnic organizations is cited as a consequence of the marginal group phenomenon. Also recognized is that this type of assertion of ethnic identity has strong implications for continuing conflict in intergroup relations. Descriptors: Acculturation, Adjustment (to Environment), Cultural Pluralism, Culture Conflict

Ogletree, Earl J. (1976). Perspectives and Issues in Bilingual-Bicultural Education. Whether bilingual-bicultural education will become a change agent and secure equal status with other programs as a desirable and essential aspect of the American educational process is still a question. Like all socio-political issues, its future depends upon the attitudes and beliefs of the populace. One of the current stumbling blocks for the acceptance and implementation of bilingual education is the question of ethnic group status. To provide a compromise between the nativists and the immigrants, current bilingual education is being developed and funded on the basis of the transitional model. Bilingual schooling is not a new phenomena in the United States; since the 1700's, various ethnic groups have established their own schools teaching English as a subject. However, during and after World War I, restrictive legislation and nationalistic and isolationist foreign policies led to the "English only" policy in schools. But by 1975, 383 classroom demonstration projects in 42 languages (23 in American Indian and Eskimo languages) existed and $68,000,000 in Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) Title VII funds were expended for bilingual education. Significant legislation and court decisions that provided a foundation for bilingual education were Meyer v. Nebraska (1923), Farrington v. Tokusnige (1927), ESEA Title VII, Title VI of the Civil Rights Act (1964), the Bilingual Education Act (1968), Lau v. Nichols (1974), and Serna v. Portales (1964). Descriptors: Biculturalism, Bilingual Education, Bilingualism, Court Litigation

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