Bibliography: Immigrant Rights (page 12 of 54)

This bibliography is reformatted and customized by the Center for Positive Practices for the Sanctuary Cities website. Some of the authors featured on this page include Kris D. Gutierrez, Terrence G. Wiley, M. Begona Arenas, Ottilia Chakera, Monica L. Stigler, Alan Sears, Olga V. Griswold, Ingrid Gogolin, Jacqueline Dumas, and Christina Chavez-Reyes.

Gogolin, Ingrid; Reich, Hans (2001). Immigrant Languages in Federal Germany. About 10 million inhabitants of Germany are of non-German origin and use German and one or more other languages in their everyday life. The number of foreign students in German schools is constantly growing. About 25 percent of Germany's foreign population are citizens of other European Union states. The largest group of minority language speakers in Germany, and the most important ethnolinguistic group, are Turkish citizens. The second largest group of minority language speakers are Bosnians/Croatians/Serbians, followed by Italians. German immigration and integration policies legally define the various immigrant groups with different rights, which affects their language maintenance. Newspapers are available in all important immigrant languages, and radio and television broadcast some programs in other languages. Teaching of immigrant languages in supplementary lessons was introduced in the late 1960s. This paper presents examples of educational policies in three German states: Hamburg, a center of massive immigration with changing educational policy; Northrhine-Westphalia, Germany's largest state, which has a high immigration rate and an educational policy devoted to linguistic diversity; and Hesse, a state with different immigration patterns that supported immigrant languages in school until 1999. (Contains 22 references.) Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Diversity (Student), Educational Policy, Elementary Secondary Education

Wiley, Terrence G.; Garcia, David R.; Danzig, Arnold B.; Stigler, Monica L. (2014). Language Policy, Politics, and Diversity in Education, Review of Research in Education. "Review of Research in Education: Vol. 38, Language Policy, Politics, and Diversity in Education" explores the role of educational language policies in promoting education as a human right. There are an estimated nearly 7,000 living languages in the world. Yet, despite the extent of language diversity, only a small number of the world's languages are used as mediums of instruction. Even in English-dominant countries, such as the United States, it is important to understand the role of educational language policies (ELPs) in promoting educational access through the dominant language, and its impact on educational equity, achievement, and students' sense of identity. A central question of importance taken up by the authors in this volume is whether language minorities should have a right not only to linguistic accommodation but also to the promotion of their languages as a means for developing a positive identification with their languages and cultures. Other questions about the impact of educational policies relate to the differential statuses of language minorities and the failure to recognize speakers of minority languages. Many countries attempt to neutralize linguistic diversity by promoting a "common" or "national" language. This strategy can have negative consequences for both minorities and speakers of the dominant language if the majority population disassociates itself from language minorities or uses minority languages to stigmatize minority populations. The role of English as the world's dominant language or lingua franca also poses challenges (see Shohamy, Chapter 11). In many countries around the world, English is a required subject in school and increasingly for university admission (Jenkins, 2013). It is also increasing as a medium of instruction, especially in mathematics and science instruction. Thus, the impact of English language educational policies as well as that of other dominant languages in a global context are subjects worthy of consideration (see Tollefson, 2013; Tollefson & Tsui, Chapter 8). Another focus of this volume addresses the importance of other major languages within the context of global economic, political, and cultural contexts. Given the large number of speakers of Spanish in both global and U.S. contexts, it is also important to consider the implications for ELPs (see the chapters by García, Chapter 3, and Macías, Chapter 2). Despite the presence of over 35 million Spanish speakers in the United States, Spanish continues to be taught primarily as a "foreign" language. As Macías (Chapter 2) notes in his chapter, the historical role of Spanish in the United States is complex but the case may be made for its status as a conational language of the United States. Finally, within most countries and increasingly within the United States, there are many languages that play an important role as heritage and thriving languages of immigrant and indigenous communities. Thus, this volume also addresses the importance of considering policies related to these languages and their speakers. Similar to the changes we are experiencing in the natural world, language diversity is in flux due to large-scale trends with widespread implications that affect every nation. This timely volume arrives at a crossroads in the course of these global shifts. The authors' perspectives provide a solid intellectual grounding from which to inform the consequential policies and programs that will shape the educational and social environments for millions of students worldwide.   [More]  Descriptors: Politics of Education, Second Languages, Civil Rights, Educational Policy

McClelland, Nicole (2008). Power to the Pupils, Teaching Tolerance. Anyone who laments that American young people are apathetic, uninvolved or not sufficiently outraged clearly is not up on the news. This article presents some news illustrating that young people are involved on some issues concerning the environment, the improvement of their schools, justice, the affordability of higher education, fairer immigrant wages, the war, and genocide.   [More]  Descriptors: Social Responsibility, Adolescents, Student Empowerment, Citizenship Education

Dumas, Jacqueline (2010). Sexual Identity and the LINC Classroom, Canadian Modern Language Review. Instructors in the federally funded program of Language Instruction for Newcomers to Canada (LINC) are responsible for teaching both the English language and citizenship values to adult immigrants. The recent legalization of same-sex marriage implies that a gay and lesbian presence is an acknowledged fact of Canadian life, with gay rights now entrenched in the value system. This context led to questions of "if", "how", and "why" teachers do or do not address sexual diversity in the classroom. A preliminary study utilizing a survey questionnaire and semi-structured interview was carried out with Alberta LINC teachers to explore perceptions of sexual diversity in relation to their teaching. Results indicate that the learning environment is characterized by the invisibility of the issue. Various redresses are suggested: teachers can utilize an inquiry approach to identity and learner autonomy; publishers can produce materials that include sexual diversity; and teacher-training programs can revise syllabi and teaching approaches in core TESL classes.   [More]  Descriptors: Personal Autonomy, Foreign Countries, Homosexuality, Sexual Identity

Todorov, Tzvetan (2010). The Coexistence of Cultures, Policy Futures in Education. Traditional links are being erased. When one lacks positive elements in order to build one's collective identity the temptation is strong to hook on to negative elements–I am not like these immigrants who are physically different from me, who speak another language, and who have strange customs. My identity lies in rejecting them. Thus, the apocalyptic vision of a homogeneous humanity is faced with a no-less-threatening vision–that of a planet inhabited by tribes at war with each other. While the benefits of the legalization of groups, in accordance with the communal or with the multicultural model, are problematic, its perverse effects are easy to foresee. Nationalism, or other forms of particularism, can serve towards fulfilling some generous goals, on a punctual scale, but it is dangerous in its principle. Universalism can be punctually misled and used to fulfill unacceptable goals; however, its principle remains liberating. It is for this reason that it has also been able to serve in order to eliminate its own perversions, such as in the ancient colonies' struggle for independence or in women's fight for equal rights. The author's conclusion is that, on a political level, the preference granted to collective belonging over individual freedom is poorly justified.   [More]  Descriptors: Immigrants, Nationalism, Identification (Psychology), Self Concept

Gutierrez, Kris D. (2012). Re-Mediating Current Activity for the Future, Mind, Culture, and Activity. The growing poverty and inequity in America should create a sense of urgency in researchers to leverage what they know for the public good–to intervene more productively and vigorously in an ever more fragile public educational system and to address the increasing vulnerability of far too many youth in the United States. The current worldwide recession, complicated if not bolstered by antiwelfare, antigovernment, antitax, and anti-immigrant ideologies and sentiments, and a dramatic retrenchment of the civil rights agenda, has become a fertile ground for powerful market-based approaches to solve economic, educational, and social problems. In this context, Mike Rose is a powerful voice in articulating a practical theory of how to organize an educational system that works for all students, as he argues for an approach to human learning that takes seriously the real conditions of labor, in which human intelligence always plays a central role. In this article, the author aims to explore how Rose's central method for designing and studying expansive forms of learning for all students aligns with the foundations of the methodology that educators have come to be associated with cultural historical activity theory (CH/AT), although one will not find the terms or the principles in Rose's work. Although Rose's work always has broad appeal, the author argues that it should have particular resonance for scholars employing a CH/AT approach in their work, as his article is rich in providing important insight into many of the relevant issues with which researchers wrestle in their individual case studies, and often with less success than Rose.   [More]  Descriptors: Educational Research, Research Methodology, Social Theories, Cultural Context

Radoff, Sara (2011). Crossing the Borders of "Plyler v. Doe": Students without Documentation and Their Right to Rights, Educational Studies: Journal of the American Educational Studies Association. In this article, I show that the intersection between education policy and immigration law in the United States sustains a permanent underclass and reinforces the deliberate disenfranchisement of students without authorized immigration status. I critically analyze the Supreme Court case "Plyler s. Doe", and I suggest the DREAM Act as a means for these students to secure a "right to rights" for economic, social, and political agency. At the heart of the argument is my assertion that domiciled residency ought to ensure these students' right to educational equity within the United States, from preschool through postsecondary levels. Throughout, I reflect on the amassing group of well-educated students, whose papers are diplomas, and who increasingly make apparent the futility of citizenship status for demarcating possibilities for mobile border crossing–not only territorial borders, but also the walls built up to obstruct class and social border crossings.   [More]  Descriptors: Equal Education, Citizenship, Court Litigation, Immigration

Shohamy, Elana; Kanza, Tzahi (2009). Language and Citizenship in Israel, Language Assessment Quarterly. This article discusses citizenship policies in Israel within the context of language, ideology, and nationalism. According to the "Law of Return", Jewish immigrants are entitled to be granted citizenship with no prior conditions; Arabs who were living in Palestine in 1948 (the time the state was founded) and their children are entitled to citizenship as well. All other groups, including Arabs who were not living in Israel in 1948, can obtain citizenship only in very rare cases. In these cases the law requires that they have "some knowledge of Hebrew," yet official tests are not used. In Israel, both Hebrew and Arabic are official languages but Hebrew has a preferred status by being the language that symbolizes the collective national identity of Israel as a Jewish sate. Although Hebrew is not required for citizenship, Jewish immigrants are faced with strong ideological pressure to acquire and use Hebrew in all domains of life. For Arabs, Arabic is used in Arab communities, at home, and as a medium of instruction in schools, but not at universities. Thus, while Israel does not implement "a language "testing" regime" for citizenship, knowledge of Hebrew plays a central role in implicit and covert ways and thus prevents full participation in civic life (Shohamy, 2006). By using the term "hollow citizenship" (Jamal, 2007), we demonstrate that in Israel there are different levels and types of citizenship. Thus, discrimination based on language is experienced by both Jews and Arabs despite their citizenship because language plays a crucial role in meaningful civic participation. Specifically, we show that for Arabs in Israel hollowness implies limited rights for entering and participating in higher education. Moreover, we claim that the hegemony of Hebrew in Israel is a gatekeeping device from societal participation to all linguistic minorities, including Jews, as the power of Hebrew as the single hegemonic language "hollows" the citizenship of various groups.   [More]  Descriptors: Semitic Languages, Official Languages, Foreign Countries, Jews

Chavez-Reyes, Christina (2010). Inclusive Approaches to Parent Engagement for Young English Language Learners and Their Families, Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education. Scholars have argued for collaborative parent involvement programs for minority students and English language learners' (ELLs) families to improve their academic success. Despite the trend toward collaboration, students' home languages and culture continue to be seen as a liability in the learning process; this sentiment has created a backlash position that claims children have a linguistic (human) right to retain their language, even when learning in school. Schecter and Cummins (2003) used the term "inclusive" as an alternative to these arguments, since "it highlights the interests of the entire society rather than those of a particular minority group and, in so doing, transcends the "us" versus "them" mentality that characterizes much of the debate" on ELLs in public schools. In the introduction of "Inclusive Pedagogy," Verplaetse and Migliacci (2008) listed the tenets of inclusive pedagogy as cited in Chow and Cummins (2003): (1) students' language and culture are valued as resources for learning; (2) parent involvement is extremely important for the learning process; (3) teachers are committed to connecting with students personally as well as instructionally; (4) teachers understand and value students' literate experiences in the home language outside school in combination with English literacy in school; and (5) teachers understand that literacy learning is both a cognitive and an affective process. This chapter focuses on the second tenet and extends attributes of inclusive pedagogy to generate inclusive approaches to parent involvement with immigrant families of ELLs in primary grades.   [More]  Descriptors: Parent Participation, Second Language Learning, Parent School Relationship, Minority Groups

Chakera, Ottilia; Sears, Alan (2006). Civic Duty: Young People's Conceptions of Voting as a Means of Political Participation, Canadian Journal of Education. Many citizens have disengaged from participation in civic life with a resulting call for new initiatives in civic education. Many of these programs have had little research on citizens' prior conceptions of participation. In this article, we provide a map of the conceptions of civic participation, specifically voting, held by two groups: recent African immigrants to Canada and native-born Canadians. Youth understand voting as a key element of democratic governance, a hard won democratic right, and a duty of democratic citizenship yet most indicate they do not plan to vote because voting does not make a difference.   [More]   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Youth, Voting, Governance

Griswold, Olga V. (2010). Narrating America: Socializing Adult ESL Learners into Idealized Views of the United States during Citizenship Preparation Classes, TESOL Quarterly: A Journal for Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages and of Standard English as a Second Dialect. Applicants for U.S. citizenship must pass the naturalization test on U.S. history, government structure, constitutional principles, and basic English skills. Although no formal preparation for the exam is required, many immigrants, especially those with limited English proficiency, avail themselves of citizenship classes offered by community adult schools. Citizenship curricula at such schools, however, rarely have room for extensive English as a second language instruction, and teachers frequently resort to linguistic and discursive adjustments to make the course content on civics accessible to their students. This paper investigates one such adjustment–namely, narratives used to make abstract constitutional principles more concrete and relevant to the students' lives. Based on the analysis of narratives selected from 28 hours of videotaped classroom interaction, I argue that, in addition to serving as explanatory devices, narratives also reproduce a dominant U.S. ideology of individualism. They contribute to the construction of the U.S. as a nation where the rights of individuals are supreme and where individuals are seen as primary agents of historic change. Because these views are not culturally universal, teachers need to be aware of their own ideological positions and their possible effect on the students' understanding and acceptance of the course material.   [More]  Descriptors: History, Citizenship, Citizenship Education, Governmental Structure

Berhanu, Girma (2010). Even in Sweden? Excluding the Included: Some Reflections on the Consequences of New Policies on Educational Processes and Outcomes, and Equity in Education, International Journal of Special Education. The purpose of this article is to reflect on the effects of educational reforms (which are guided by a neoliberal political agenda) on educational processes, outcomes, and inclusive education in Sweden. It is focused in particular on the increasing marginalisation and exclusion of students with special educational needs, immigrant students, and socially disadvantaged segments of the population. It sheds light on the mechanism in which the changes are framed: neoliberal philosophies that place greater emphasis on devolution, marketization (driven by principles of cost containment and efficiency), competition, standardization, individual choices and rights, development of new profiles within particular school units, and other factors that potentially work against the values of diversity, equity, and inclusion. I argue here that marginalisation and segregation of socially disadvantaged and ethnic minority groups has increased as a consequence of this new wave of policy measures. Resultant resource differences have widened among schools and municipalities and among pupils. Swedish efforts in the past to promote equity through a variety of educational policies have been fascinating. Those early educational policies, including the macro-political agenda focused on the social welfare model, have helped to diminish the effects of differential social, cultural, and economic background on outcomes. This has come under threat. There is still some hope, however, of mitigating the situation through varied social and educational measures combined with an effective monitoring system and a stronger partnership and transparent working relationship between the central and local government systems. Research and follow-up are crucial in this process.   [More]  Descriptors: Equal Education, Disadvantaged, Foreign Countries, Minority Groups

Lau, Sunny Man Chu (2015). Intercultural Education through a Bilingual Children's Rights Project: Reflections on Its Possibilities and Challenges with Young Learners, Intercultural Education. Despite the growing importance of intercultural education, literature is still lacking in related research with young learners. This study reports on a yearlong university-school collaborative research project that aimed to promote students' intercultural competence and critical bi-literacy skills through their exploration of the issue of children's rights. Grounded in the critical perspectives of intercultural pedagogy and dynamic bi-/multilingualism, the two collaborating Grade 3 teachers engaged their students in critical inquiry of children's rights in both English and French. Through a range of hybrid translanguage literacy practices and experiential learning activities, students came to understand what children's rights are and appreciate the importance of solidarity, equity, and compassion. Apart from highlighting some activities developed during this project and the impact of the activities on student participants, the study also attempts to critically reflect on some of the challenges in conducting intercultural education with young learners, in particular their emergent but conflicted understanding of other cultures. Further, the study speaks to the issue of how such an important education can be practiced in a non-reductionist and non-simplistic manner yet still be accessible to young learners.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingualism, Childrens Rights, Multicultural Education, Cultural Awareness

Arenas, M. Begona; Hitos, Alicia; Perchiazzi, Matteo; Ugolini, Sara (2010). People's Empowerment through Blended Mentoring: The EMPIRE Project Experimentation in Spain and Italy, European Journal of Open, Distance and E-Learning. Mentoring works as a strategy for helping people and particularly disadvantaged groups of population such as the unemployed, young people or immigrants improve their professional opportunities and succeed in life. It helps give people the confidence, access to valuable resources, and skills they need to reach their potential. The article presents two out of four blended mentoring pilots conducted in the framework of the Lifelong Learning Project EMPIRE. The first considerations resulting from the pilot projects are: (1) The right mix of face-to-face and e-mentoring elements in addition to indirect communication varies from target group to target group; (2) The use of ICT tools appropriate to the goals of the pilot and its target groups increases the potential of mentoring; (3) the organisational structure needed to continuously support, motivate and follow the "blended mentoring couples" is key to promoting a fully successful Lifelong Guidance and learning experience; and (4) Blended mentoring is particularly effective in career development when combined with other professional development activities and tools such as internships or work placements.   [More]   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Mentors, Information Technology, Pilot Projects

Myers, John P.; Zaman, Husam A. (2009). Negotiating the Global and National: Immigrant and Dominant-Culture Adolescents' Vocabularies of Citizenship in a Transnational World, Teachers College Record. Background/Context: The current national debate over the purposes of civic education is largely tied to outdated notions of citizenship that overlook its changing nature under globalization. Civic education is based on a legalistic understanding of citizenship that emphasizes patriotism and the structures and functions of government. This study examined adolescents' civic beliefs and affiliations, drawing on theories of transnational and global citizenship. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of Study: The purpose was to examine diverse adolescents' vocabularies of citizenship, a concept that captures the tensions in their civic beliefs and affiliations. Their vocabularies were explored in terms of two topics at the intersection of national and global affiliations: universal human rights and global citizenship. The central question asked was: How do adolescents from immigrant backgrounds understand the tensions between national and global civic affiliations, and do they differ from dominant-culture adolescents' understandings? Setting: The research setting was the Pennsylvania Governor's School for International Studies, a 5-week summer program for high school students that emphasizes current scholarship and skills in international affairs, cultural studies, and foreign language. Research Design: A mixed-method case study design was employed to collect detailed and rich data on the students' beliefs about citizenship. Findings/Results: The findings showed that the students from immigrant backgrounds favored universal positions and were the only students to call attention to national economic inequalities. In contrast, a majority of the dominant-culture students gave a more central role to national affiliations. However, over half of the students switched between universal and nationally oriented positions for the issues of global citizenship and human rights. It is argued that these switches represent a strong indication of the tensions in civic affiliations in light of globalization. Conclusions/Recommendations: The findings presented here suggest that the question of either national- or global-oriented civic education makes little sense. This research suggests that differentiated forms of civic education are needed if all youth will have access to full citizenship and the range of civic affiliations needed in the world. Two approaches for reconceptualizing civic education are proposed: Civic education curricula should focus on the intersection of national with global issues and affiliations, and civic education should address, in addition to civic attitudes, skills, and knowledge, a conscious effort to help adolescents build flexible and multiple civic identities.   [More]  Descriptors: Summer Programs, Citizenship, Citizenship Education, International Studies

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